European aquaculture provides 1.25 million tonnes of seafood annually, valued at over 4 billion euro. However, Europe heavily depends on external markets to ensure consumer demands for seafood (including from fresh water) is met. EU aquaculture needs to increase the competiveness of its food products and to respond to consumer demands for high-quality and safe food, in a challenging context of climate change, greater competition for natural resources, and conflicting interests for space and markets. To ensure food and nutrition security by 2030, European aquaculture has to sustainably expand in terms of space, production and new value chains, exploring and enhancing innovation opportunities offered by sustainable and resilient aquaculture production systems, implementing the circular economy principles and increasing social acceptance of the corresponding activities and products. European aquaculture has now a unique opportunity to address not only today's challenges of climate change and food and nutrition security, but also to implement the international commitments encompassed in the UN SDGs, while fostering economic growth and social prosperity.